Is Arizona facing a water shortage?
Scottsdale, Arizona (CNN) As the climate crisis intensifies, battle lines are beginning to form over water. In Arizona — amid a decades-long megadrought — some communities are facing the very real possibility of losing access to the precious water that remains.2022-03-30
Is NSW in drought 2021?
Drought recovery continued across most of NSW in February 2021. February rainfall strengthened recovery across much of central and eastern NSW. Many of these areas remain well placed for 2021 and conditions favourable for agricultural production are highly likely to continue.
Will water run out by 2040?
Summary: Water is used around the world for the production of electricity, but new research results show that there will not be enough water in the world to meet demand by 2040 if the energy and power situation does not improve before then.2014-07-29
Will there be drought in 2022?
NOAA issued its U.S. Spring Outlook today and for the second year in a row, forecasters predict prolonged, persistent drought in the West where below-average precipitation is most likely.2022-03-17
Will there be a drought next year?
After a brutally hot and dry 2021, the region is now in the worst “megadrought” in 1,200 years. Climate change is to blame.2022-02-14
Why is there a shortage of water in Arizona?
In Arizona, verdant fields of crops and a growing sprawl of suburban homes mean a sharp demand for water in the middle of the desert. Meeting that demand includes drawing from massive stores of water in underground aquifers.2022-01-04
Is there a drought in CA 2021?
2021 overview All 58 counties in California are now under a drought emergency proclamation. Most rain and snow falls in California from November through April. It fills the reservoirs and aquifers that we use to supply homes, businesses, and farms.
Is Arizona running out of water?
Will we run out of water?” The answer is no. We’re prepared. That’s because SRP, Valley cities, the Central Arizona Project (CAP) and the Arizona Department of Water Resources are working together to track drought conditions and plan for a reliable water future.
Does Arizona have a water shortage?
Arizona’s Short-Term Challenges This has resulted in Lake Mead dropping to historically low reservoir levels. Most recent projections show a probability of shortage as soon as 2020, although expected shortage volumes are relatively small compared to Arizona’s total Colorado River allocation.
Is Arizona having a water shortage?
And though Arizona has stored over 13 million acre-feet of water underground to supplement supply during years of water shortage, never since statehood in 1912 has Arizona encountered such a long and deep period of water scarcity that science predicts will grow steadily more severe.2022-03-28
Will we run out of water in 2050?
Assuming a World average water consumption for food of 1,300 m3/year per capita in 2000, 1,400 m3/year in 2050, and 1,500 m3/year in 2100, a volume of water of around 8,200 km3/year was needed in 2000, 13,000 km3/year will be needed in 2050, and 16,500 km3/year in 2100.
Is there a water shortage in Phoenix?
Though Phoenix has more than an adequate supply of water in non-shortage years, residents and business owners are encouraged to embrace a desert lifestyle. In Arizona, the current drought is approaching 15 years in length and has surpassed the worst drought in more than110 years of official recordkeeping.
Is Arizona still in a drought 2021?
There is no Exceptional (D4) drought in the state. This report was prepared by the Arizona Drought Monitoring Technical Committee on . Arizona’s short-term drought status map is updated during the first week of each month.
Can Phoenix run out of water?
Maybe you’ve heard that much of Arizona has experienced dry winters in recent years. You may have wondered, “What does this mean for the Phoenix area long term? Will we run out of water?” The answer is no.
Is the rain helping AZ drought?
The drought is getting better for the Phoenix-metro area as seen in these two maps. The map on the left is from 2020 and the map on the right is from 2021. The dramatic improvement is all thanks to rainfall, especially from the big storms this monsoon season and the moisture Phoenix has received in December.2021-12-31
Does Arizona have a water shortage problem?
Most recent projections show a probability of shortage as soon as 2020, although expected shortage volumes are relatively small compared to Arizona’s total Colorado River allocation. While this is cause for concern, these conditions are not unexpected.
How long until Arizona runs out of water?
Phoenix plans its water supply for 50 to 100 years into the future.
What is causing the water shortage in Arizona?
Arizona’s Short-Term Challenges The Colorado River system, which supplies 36 percent of Arizona’s total water use, has experienced extensive drought conditions for the past 19 years. This has resulted in Lake Mead dropping to historically low reservoir levels.
Does Phoenix have a water shortage?
Phoenix’s water supply is in very good shape. Even though Phoenix remains in a regional period of climatic drought that began in 2000, our water supply is not dependent on annual precipitation events.
What Year Will drinking water run out?
Unless water use is drastically reduced, severe water shortage will affect the entire planet by 2040. “There will be no water by 2040 if we keep doing what we’re doing today”. – Professor Benjamin Sovacool, Aarhus University, Denmark.
Could Phoenix survive a water crisis? – The Counter
Water. The main issue is water. In Metro Phoenix, everyday dihydrogen monoxide will soon be liquid gold. Norton climbs back into his truck. Once he fires the engine, a dashboard warning chimes. He grips the sun-faded wheel tightly. “The project specifically focuses on water conservation—streamflow in the Verde River,” he says.
Arizona is ready for a water shortage, except for one thing
We’re fortunate it’s likely coming in 2022, two years later than we planned. Through a complex web of agreements, central Arizona cities and tribes will be fully mitigated for their losses of this
Phoenix Drought Information – Phoenix, Arizona
The City of Phoenix water supply system has been designed specifically to provide water during shortage conditions. The water system design allows flexibility in how to respond as drought conditions change. The growth of ou r city and recent drought conditions have prompted a re-evaluation of the capabilities of this system under extreme shortages.
As the drought persists, here's how Phoenix is prepared
Phoenix has been storing a portion of its unused Colorado River water in Tucson aquifers. In future times of shortage, the stored water will be recovered for delivery in Tucson. A corresponding
Arizona farmers are slammed by water cuts in the West amid
The Bureau of Reclamation in August declared a water shortage at Lake Mead, one of the river’s primary reservoirs, after water levels fell to historic lows. More than one-third of Arizona’s water
Arizona drought: Water cuts are pitting communities
A water shortage was declared for the first time on the river last year. On the western border of Arizona, acres of farmland are luring big-city investment firms to rural Cibola. The land there
How the Lake Powell dry-up will affect Arizona's water
PHOENIX — Arizona’s top water official says he never thought this day would come so soon. Federal officials are warning that the West’s escalating water crisis could put some Arizona communities’
Experts warn AZ water supply will be impacted by drought
In a statement released in early April, the Arizona Department of Water Resources, and the Central Arizona Project state that they expect the first-ever shortage declaration for the river in 2022,
5 U.S. Cities That Potentially Could Run Out of Water
But officials in Phoenix, the state’s capital and largest city, know the day is coming when they can no longer rely on the Colorado River for 40 percent of their water needs. And that’s just one
Arizona's water crisis in Pine-Strawberry fueled by dry
Phoenix, AZ » 72° Phoenix, AZ » Pine-Strawberry’s proposed solution to its water crisis may backfire. Pine-Strawberry residents are meeting with Sen. Mark Kelly’s team to get funding for
Arizona to face water cuts after first shortage
The U.S. Department of Reclamation officials announced their decision to declare a “Level 1” water shortage on Monday. According to the state’s largest supplier of water, the Central Arizona
In Era of Drought, Phoenix Prepares for a Future Without
The Phoenix Water Services Department is one of the nation’s largest, with 1.5 million customers spread out across 540 square miles. It maintains 7,000 miles of water lines and 5,000 miles of sewer lines. The Salt River is the single biggest source of water for metro Phoenix, and provides about 60 percent of its needs.
PDF Phoenix is Prepared for Shortage Caused by Drought PHX
PHOENIX.GOV | MAY 2022 Phoenix is Prepared for Shortage Caused by Drought Central Arizona is experiencing the first-ever Tier 1 Shortage on the Colorado River in 2022. While a Tier 1 Shortage does not currently affect Phoenix’s water supplies, additional shortage tiers are expected to impact Phoenix’s Colorado River supplies in the next several
Phoenix pours $280 million into pipeline to prepare for
And the Bureau of Reclamation declared the first-ever shortage on the Colorado River. City of Phoenix Water Services Director Troy Hayes stands next to 66-inch steel and concrete pipes. The new
Water Services – phoenix.gov
Phoenix has a culture of conservation and using water wisely increases our resiliency during shortage. Phoenix has reduced its water use by 30% per capita over the last 20 years even with an increase in population of over 400,000 people. Being efficient with water is part of our long-term water management.
January 2022 Shortages – Government Affairs
In 2020 and 2021 Arizona has operated at the Tier Zero Colorado River status meaning we do not take 192,000-acre feet of our allocated 2.8-million-acre feet annual Lake Mead entitlement. If the current anticipated Tier 1 cuts occur in 2022, Arizona will further reduce its water use from the river to 512,000-acre feet.
As fire crews face water shortages – FOX 10 Phoenix
The state is expected to hit Tier 1 water shortage on the Colorado River sometime in 2022, and while a water shortage is troubling, especially for farmers, state, cities and utilities have been
With water dwindling in Southwest, Arizona plans for
The federal government declared a water shortage for much of the Southwest last week, resulting in the first mandatory cutbacks for some who draw from the Colorado River. As two decades of drought, increased demand and climate change cut deep into the West’s water supply, the region is looking ahead to a future where supplies might drop further still.
Drought Status – AZWATER
Arizona’s short-term drought status map is updated during the first week of each month. Long-term Drought Conditions Quarterly Drought Status Update: JANUARY-MARCH 2022 Statewide precipitation for Water Year 2022 was below average at 3.78 inches at the end of March, a departure from the average precipitation of 6.32 inches.
Plight of Phoenix: how long can the world's 'least
To look around Anthem would be to imagine there is no such thing as a water shortage. But the lush vegetation and ponds do not occur naturally. Phoenix gets less than eight inches of rainfall each
Arizona Could Be Out of Water in Six Years | Smart News
If upstream states continue to be unable to make up the shortage, Lake Mead, whose surface is now about 1,085 feet above sea level, will drop to 1,000 feet by 2020. Under present conditions, that
U.S. Drought: Lake Mead's Water Shortage Sign of Peril for
A cut of 720,000 acre-feet of water represents about a year’s supply for more than 2 million households. Arizona’s initial cuts will fall on farmers, however, and not municipalities or industry.
Five Water Issues to Watch in Arizona in 2020 | Phoenix
The shortage of about 8.1 million acre-feet will affect both agriculture and developers. On average, Phoenix households use about one-third of an acre-foot per year. “The reality [is] that
Water shortages loom over future semiconductor fabs in Arizona
As the global semiconductor shortage continues, chipmakers plan to open new factories in Arizona. But a worsening drought in the region has already triggered an unprecedented water shortage.
The Southwest's looming water battle
The Southwest’s most important river is drying up. The Colorado River irrigates farms, powers electric grids and provides drinking water to 40 million people. But as its supply dwindles, a
Do We Have Enough? – Arizona WaterFacts
The Colorado River system, which supplies 36 percent of Arizona’s total water use, has experienced extensive drought conditions for the past 19 years. This has resulted in Lake Mead dropping to historically low reservoir levels. Most recent projections show a probability of shortage as soon as 2020, although expected shortage volumes are
Arizona preparing for cutbacks on Colorado River water
With the Colorado River’s largest reservoir just 38% full and declining toward the threshold of a first-ever shortage, Arizona water officials convened an online meeting this week to outline how
US West prepares for possible 1st water shortage declaration
Arizona, Nevada and Mexico have voluntarily given up water under a drought contingency plan for the river signed in 2019. A shortage declaration would subject the two U.S. states to their first
Arizona's water supplies are drying up. How will its
In 2018 Phoenix added more new residents than any other U.S. city. Facing scarcity, the state’s longstanding economic and political order is shifting, with water and power flowing from its
US West Prepares For Possible First Water Shortage
Arizona, Nevada and Mexico have voluntarily given up water under a drought contingency plan for the river signed in 2019. A shortage declaration would subject the two U.S. states to their first mandatory reductions. Both rely on the Colorado River more than any other water source, and Arizona stands to lose roughly one-third of its supply.
How Arizona needs to respond to its water shortage
The world is in a water shortage, and Arizona is no exception. Agriculture is one of the largest expenditures of water, having once consumed 90% of all of Arizona’s total available water supply. Now, that number is down to 74%. Earlier we spoke with Seth Siegel, a world-renowned expert on water scarcity and author of “Let There be Water
One of Phoenix's Main Water Sources Is Drying Up – Bloomberg
, 3:47 AM PDT. The state of Arizona has been in drought since 1994. In that time, its population has almost doubled to 7.2 million people as of 2020, according to the U.S. Census
Arizona is bracing for a historic water shortage. Here's
A Tier 1 shortage will cut the state’s annual entitlement of Colorado River water, which is 2.8 million acre-feet, by 512,000 acre-feet, according to the Arizona Department of Water Resources. One acre-foot is enough water for three average Phoenix households for one year.
Arizona Water Shortage: What Can We Do? – Dorn Policy
A Tier 1 water shortage has been declared, meaning that more water supply cuts are expected in 2022. Arizona’s population has experienced rapid growth over the last decade. While more people means more strain on the scarce water supply, population growth has also had a positive impact on water supply.
With Water Dwindling In The Southwest, Arizona Plans For
The federal government declared a water shortage for much of the Southwest last week, resulting in the first ever mandatory cutbacks for some who draw from the Colorado River. As two decades of drought, increased demand and climate change cut deep into the West’s water supply, the region is looking ahead to a future where supplies might drop further still.
Feds declare first Colorado River shortage, order water
The federal government issued the first water shortage declaration for Lake Mead and the Colorado River’s lower basin, triggering water cuts in Arizona, Nevada and Mexico starting in January.
Data centers consume millions of gallons of Arizona water
Mesa has long prepared for shortage through careful planning to build a robust infrastructure and water portfolio. Mesa residents would not be affected by initial shortages on the Colorado River.
TSMC: Taiwanese chipmaker ramping production to end chip
Taiwan Semiconductor is investing $100 billion to ramp up production during the chip shortage. Its Phoenix plant will bring chip manufacturing back to the U.S.
Drought is here to stay in the Western U.S. How will
03:13. The drought has been so persistent that the Southern Nevada Water Authority and many other groups in the region have spent the last 20 years preparing for a drier future. “It
Arizona faces renewed water negotiations during drought
The news that the federal government declared the first-ever water shortage on the Colorado River was widely anticipated and the initial water cuts will be narrow. But experts say Arizona will
This city is projected to have the biggest water shortage
– Projected water shortage ratio in 2040: 2.01 A 2017 analysis from Melbourne Water found that demand for water could exceed supply in Melbourne by 2028, and the city could face a water crisis by
Water levels of Lake Mead hit lowest point in 51 years
PHOENIX —. Falling water levels at Lake Mead, the country’s largest manmade reservoir are now at an all-time low. The reservoir’s original water intake valve in operation since 1971 is exposed
Crisis in Phoenix: Water the problems? – A Tale Of A Dozen
Furthermore, Phoenix is not first on the list to receive the river water, so in case of shortages, Phoenix would have to give up some of its shares of the water. If the Colorado River water source may become unavailable one day, it could cost up to half a billion dollars to build new infrastructures to provide alternative forms to deliver water
Top 10 Worst Neighborhoods in Phoenix, Arizona
If there’s nothing to love about Phoenix, being a sunny city for at least 300 days in a year could be all the reason you may need. And this may or may not be the inspiration behind Realtordotcom bestowing it the 6 th rank in “Most Popular City to Live” in 2014.. While Phoenix may not be entirely crime-free, it’s one you could say is far enough away from large crime proportions.
Claim: Phoenix Water Shortage will Lead to Middle East
Phoenix, Arizona. By DPPed (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons. Guest essay by Eric Worrall. Clean Technica’s Steve Hanley claims that looming water shortages in Phoenix, Arizona and large scale internal US migrations will lead to Middle East style resource conflicts.
Could Arizona see a water shortage – FOX 10 Phoenix
Could Arizona see a water shortage declaration? The lakes that supply water for millions of people in the U.S. West are projected to shrink to historic lows in the coming months, which could
How Arizona Is Preparing for the Coming Water Shortage
Op-Ed: Implications for Phoenix as Lake Mead Runs Dry. Metro Phoenix has a lot to think about as Lake Mead water shortages become ever more likely. A three-state drought contingency plan may only be a temporary fix for a problem that’ll divide cities and stakeholders. October 9, 2018 – azcentral.com
These 11 Cities May Completely Run Out Of Water Sooner
El Paso shared much of the same water shortage concerns that Texas’ northern agricultural belt faced in both Columbia University’s and CIRES’ studies — with high risk for water shortage and moderate stress on area watersheds. And El Paso was listed as the 10th most at-risk city in University of Florida’s water vulnerability study.
Sustainable Water Supply | City of Mesa
Mesa’s diversified water supply . Each valley city has their own water outlook and Mesa has long prepared for shortage through careful planning to build a robust infrastructure and diverse water portfolio.. Mesa has three primary sources of water that include surface water from the Colorado River (Eastern and Southern Zones), Salt and Verde Rivers (City Zone), and groundwater supplies (all zones).
How is the real estate market in Phoenix AZ?
Does Arizona have a water shortage problem? Arizona is in the midst of a historic water shortage. The Southwest and much of the West is suffering from an intense 22-year drought, resulting in increasingly low water levels, dry soil, and dry vegetation fueled wildfires. Why are houses in Phoenix so cheap?
Arizona will struggle to find enough water for suburban
Some suburbs of Tucson and Phoenix will struggle to find enough water to keep growing without damaging underground aquifers by overpumping groundwater, a new report warns.
Arizona careening toward water shortage crisis | News
Arizona’s now facing a water crisis that could dry up rural areas all over the state and confront the Valley with a crippling water shortage in the coming decades, according to a recently
Arizonans speak out on nationwide goods shortage – KYMA
PHOENIX, Ariz. (KYMA, KECY/CBS) – A nationwide goods shortage has left shelves empty of products such as food and household supplies. Arizonans now find themselves going to multiple stores in
Rapid growth in Arizona's suburbs bets against an
Unlike wildfires or hurricanes, a diminishing water supply is a slow-moving, mostly invisible crisis. But if current growth rates continue, in roughly a decade it will be impossible to ignore.
Arizona Water News – Reliable water supplies to meet the
PHOENIX – The Arizona Department of Water Resources and the Central Arizona Project have scheduled a joint virtual public briefing for April 29 at 9 a.m. regarding the potential 2022 “Tier 1” shortage condition on the Colorado River system.
What the deepening water shortage means for Arizona
Arizona is in the midst of a historic water shortage. The Southwest and much of the West is suffering from an intense 22-year drought, resulting in increasingly low water levels, dry soil, and dry
droughtfacts.com | Is Central Arizona at Risk?
This water, which is stored underground in aquifers, serves as a backup supply during water shortages or periods of drought. Tough water laws. The Greater Phoenix area sits within an Active Management Area (AMA). Water providers and users within an AMA have to follow rules outlined in the 1980 Groundwater Management Act.
How to Solve the LA Water Crisis – EDGY Labs
A new LA water crisis can be forthcoming, and the state government wants to be prepared. On May 31, Governor Jerry Brown approved two bills ( SB 606 and AB 1668) that set water-efficiency goals by placing permanent restrictions on the amount of water Californians can use per day. Starting from 2022, the new regulations give state residents an
When Pandemic Subsides, Phoenix May Reduce Water Flow For
Water trickles out of a faucet. (Martin Bernetti/AFP via Getty Images) This article is more than 1 year old. Phoenix officially recorded its hottest summer on record this week with an average high
Colorado River Faces Tier 1 Shortage – Green Living Magazine
In fact, the water volume of the Colorado River has been on a steady decline since the early 2000s, and a shortage such as this has been in discussion for many years prior. In the meantime, the City of Phoenix has had ample time to brace for this shortage and has taken numerous steps to assure that the Valley is not left without options.
After Historic Drought Deal, Arizona – Phoenix New Times
With the pending shortages on the Colorado River, the state’s largest city needs to build more infrastructure, like water mains and pumps to ensure that north Phoenix, the area most dependent on
Durban residents to suffer five-week water shortages
The Durban heights water treatment plant supplies the water needs of much of the Durban region, the north, the south and central. Presently, a deficit of 15 million litres of drinking water in about nine areas affected and the worst area is Umlazi and then in the north, Phoenix has been affected so as Sunningdale, Durban north, and parts of
Arizona heads into Tier 1 Colorado River Shortage for 2022
Phoenix, Arizona () – The Colorado River Basin continues to experience drought and the impacts of hotter and drier conditions. Based on the Jan. 1 projected level of Lake Mead at 1,065.85 feet above sea level, the U.S. Secretary of the Interior has declared the first-ever Tier 1 shortage for Colorado River operations in 2022.
Arizona Water Shortage – Pinpoint Pool Leak Detection In
In fact, Lake Mead has dropped 130 feet since 2000 and sits at only 38% of its capacity, according to AZCentral. These quickly declining water levels are leading us towards Arizona’s first water shortage. Experts say that this is all thanks to aridification, the process of a region becoming increasingly arid, or dry over a long period of time.
Once again, Arizona hopes to import out-of-state water in
Once again, Arizona hopes to import out-of-state water in face of crisis. This aerial photo of Davenport, Iowa, shows Mississippi River floodwaters in May 2019. The Arizona Legislature wants the
A History of Global Water Crisis – Facts That You Might
A History of Global Water Crisis. 1. The Nile Basin Dispute. The Nile, Africa’s longest river, has been at the focus of a ten-year complex conflict involving numerous countries that rely on its waters, threatening a global water crisis. Ethiopia and Egypt are at the forefront of this conflict, with Sudan being drawn into it as well.
Federal Water Shortage Limits Loom Over Colorado River And
The government is expected to issue its first water shortage declaration for the river, which supplies more than 40 million people. That will mean hardships for farms, recreation and Indian tribes.
The Phoenix, Arizona Water Shortage – 862 Words | 123 Help Me
The Phoenix, Arizona Water Shortage. Fact: Arizona is in a 10-year drought. Fact: The city of Phoenix has a water problem that has nothing to do with lack thereof. A hundred years ago or more humans would just drink from a river or stream, but today we need purified, cleansed, and filter water.
Colorado River Shortage Creates Arizona Water Crisis
A 22-year megadrought and growing demands across the Colorado River Basin have depleted the river, pushing Western reservoirs to historic lows and triggering the first-ever federally declared water shortages. For Western states, this means cuts. In 2022, Arizona will implement the largest cuts, losing 20% of its Colorado River water.
Farmers In Arizona Face Cuts Because Of Colorado River
Farmers In Arizona Face Cuts Because Of Colorado River Water Shortages Two decades of drought means reservoirs that store runoff from the Colorado River are depleted, and there’s just not enough
Amid drought, Phoenix plans for a future with less water
As the Colorado River’s flow declines mostly due to overuse and climate change, water supplies in seven states are imperiled by potential shortages. That inc
Phoenix Water Drought Pipeline Project – Phoenix Water
With shortages looming on the Colorado River, Phoenix Water must build the infrastructure needed to pump and move alternative water supplies to portions of our
Colorado River Water Cuts Would Increase Rates in Arizona
Colorado River Water Cuts Would Increase Rates in Arizona. Thu 01 Jul, 2021 – 12:59 PM ET. Fitch Ratings-New York/Austin/San Francisco-01 July 2021: Expected mandatory water cuts from the Colorado River under the Drought Contingency Plan (DCP), the Congressionally approved water management plan for Colorado River basin states, are likely to
Tier 1 Shortage | Arizona Department of Water Resources
That by the end of 2021, water levels at the system’s Lake Mead reservoir likely will fall to a point that a “Tier 1” shortage declaration likely would be triggered for the 2022 deliveries of Colorado River water. Published:. Read more. about A Joint Colorado River Shortage Preparedness Briefing is Scheduled for April 29.
What options does Phoenix, Arizona – Global Water Forum
Being a desert state, Arizona has been aggressive in its policies to acquire, store and keep water resources to ensure the survival and growth of its population. 2 Urban and suburban development is a priority, particularly in Phoenix, and legislators and water managers could pursue additional water resources to fuel urban development and growth
PDF Vulnerability assessment of climate-induced water shortage
Vulnerability assessment of climate-induced water shortage in Phoenix Patricia Gobera,b,c,1 and Craig W. Kirkwoodd aDecision Center for a Desert City, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-8209; and bSchool of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, cSchool of Sustainability, and dW. P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4706
Archaeology Magazine – Insider – Phoenix's Looming Water
Insider: Phoenix’s Looming Water Crisis Volume 64 Number 2, March/April 2011. by Brian Fagan Could the solution be under the city itself in the vast and ancient irrigation networks of the Hohokam people? The city of Phoenix was built on the ruins of a Hohokam settlement that is between 1,500 and 550 years old. The remains of a canal network are